AI Tech Stack : Data, Compute, Models, and OpsAI

In 2023, the generative AI tech stack experienced significant advancements thanks to innovations in systems like Google’s Gemini, DALL-E 3, and ChatGPT. But as AI grows more potent and pervasive, it’s obvious that we’re just getting started with its potential.

The foundational pillars of the AI tech stack – data, compute, models, and AIOps – will continue advancing rapidly.


You’re absolutely right, high-quality training data is like fuel for AI models. As models continue to scale up into the trillion-parameter range, their hunger for data only grows. But here’s the thing, not all data is created equal. Factors like variance, complexity, and alignment are just as important as the scale of the data.

Let’s take a look at some key data trends to keep an eye on:

  1. Synthetic data generation: The improvement in synthetic data generation tools, like Mostly AI and AI21 Lab’s Jurassic-1, is really fascinating. These tools are getting better at creating training sets that closely mimic the complexity of the real world. This means AI models can learn from more diverse and realistic data, leading to better performance.
  2. Multimodal data integration: Models like Google’s Imagen are making strides in connecting different types of data, such as images, audio, video, and text. By pre-training models on aligned multimodal datasets, we can expect breakthroughs in tasks that require understanding and processing multiple types of data.
  3. Real-world data supplementation: While synthetic data is valuable, incorporating real-world data from users and companies is equally important. Techniques like federated learning allow AI models to learn from distributed data sources without compromising privacy. This real-world grounding helps prevent AI “hallucinations” and ensures that models are trained on data that reflects the actual environment they’ll be deployed in.
  4. Low-data techniques: Prompt engineering is an interesting approach that enables fine-tuning of models with limited training examples. Instead of needing millions of examples, models can adapt to new domains with just a few hundred examples. This makes AI more sample-efficient and allows for faster adaptation to new tasks and environments.
  5. Data markets: As AI models consume more and more data, the need for proper valuation and incentives becomes crucial. Data markets are emerging where diverse data sources can be valued, traded, and combined. OpenAI, for example, launched Data Partnerships in November 2023, collaborating with organizations to create public and private datasets for training AI models.

These data trends are shaping the future of AI, enabling models to learn from more realistic and diverse data, tackle complex tasks, and adapt to new domains efficiently.

Also Read: Samsung Galaxy S24 Ultra Review: The Ultimate AI Phone


optimizing the AI compute stack is crucial for making AI development more accessible to everyone. Let’s dive into some exciting advancements that will democratize AI-powered solutions:

  1. Specialized hardware: Companies like Google are designing specialized hardware, such as tensor processing units (TPUs), Dojo, and Cerebras, that provide significant speed and efficiency improvements over traditional GPUs. This means faster and more power-efficient training of AI models.
  2. Model parallelism: Megatron LM has shown us the power of model parallelism, allowing us to scale model training beyond the limitations of a single chip. By distributing the model across multiple devices, we can train even larger and more complex models.
  3. Inference optimization: Optimizing inference is all about reducing latency and costs. Techniques like a mixture of experts, model quantization, and streaming inference help make AI predictions faster and more efficient. This means quicker responses and lower computational expenses.
  4. Cloud marketplace competition: The competition among major cloud providers like Amazon, Microsoft, Google, and startups is driving down the costs of model serving. This makes it more affordable for developers to deploy and scale their AI applications.
  5. On-device inference: The future of AI is pushing compute capabilities to edge devices like smartphones. This allows developers to perform AI tasks directly on the device, avoiding the need for cloud resources and reducing latency. It’s all about bringing AI closer to the end-user.

Researchers from MIT and the MIT-IBM Watson AI Lab have also been working on on-device fine-tuning. This technique enables deep-learning models to adapt to new sensor data directly on edge devices. It offers benefits like enhanced privacy, lower costs, customization ability, and even lifelong learning. With advancements like PockEngine, running both inference and training on edge devices becomes more feasible. These advancements in AI compute optimization are making AI development more accessible, efficient, and cost-effective.


Language, image, video, and multimodal models are continuously evolving and becoming more powerful. But it’s not just about scale; new architectures, training techniques, and evaluation metrics play a crucial role too!

One exciting development is the emergence of multimodal architectures like Google’s Gemini. These models fuse different modalities, such as text and images, into a single framework. This integration allows for richer applications like visual chatbots, where AI can understand and respond to both textual and visual inputs.

Improving training techniques is also essential. Companies like Anthropic are working on Constitutional AI, which aims to reduce harmful biases and enhance safety in AI models. By addressing biases, we can ensure fair and unbiased outcomes. Additionally, models like Midjourney’s v6 demonstrate steady progress in this area.

To evaluate the progress of AI models benchmarks like HumanEval and AGIEvaluator are being developed. These benchmarks focus on real-world tasks and challenges, avoiding vanity metrics. The ultimate goal is to achieve robust out-of-distribution (OOD) generalization, meaning that AI models can perform well on unseen examples.

Furthermore, specialized models are being developed to tackle specific domains such as code, chemistry, and mathematics. These models, built upon transfer learning from general models, help bootstrap the understanding and application of AI in these verticals.

Overall, the advancements in language, image, video, and multimodal models are driving the field of AI forward. With new architectures, improved training techniques, and better evaluation metrics, we’re making significant strides toward creating more capable, fair, and reliable AI systems.

Also Read: DJI launches 3D model editing software


The AIOps stack is evolving to support the development of real-world AI applications. Let’s dive into some of the key aspects that make it all possible!

MLOps, which stands for Machine Learning Operations, is becoming essential in the AI landscape. It enables seamless model development and deployment lifecycles. With MLOps, teams can efficiently experiment with different models, track their progress, and deploy them into production with ease. To accelerate research and experimentation, tools like Comet ML and Weights & Biases provide experiment-tracking capabilities. These tools make it easier to keep track of different model iterations, hyperparameters, and results, ultimately speeding up the research process.

Infrastructure automation plays a crucial role in scaling AI applications. Technologies like Terraform and Kubernetes simplify the process of provisioning and managing the necessary infrastructure. This automation ensures that AI systems can be easily scaled up or down based on demand. Monitoring is another critical aspect of the AIOps stack. Tools like WhyLabs and Robust Intelligence help ensure the reliable performance of AI models in production. They provide insights into model behavior, performance metrics, and potential issues, allowing teams to make informed decisions and maintain the quality of their AI applications.

To simplify model access and distribution, various platforms have emerged. HuggingFace, Render, and Causal are examples of distribution platforms that make it easier for developers to access and utilize pre-trained models. These platforms provide a user-friendly interface and streamline the deployment process.

For non-experts in AI, vertical solutions are being developed to hide the complexity. Platforms like Replicate and Runway ML focus on deploying generative models, making them more accessible for users who may not have deep technical expertise. All these advancements in the AIOps stack are driving the development and deployment of real-world AI applications. With tools for rapid experimentation, deployment, monitoring, and simplified access, we’re making AI more accessible and powerful.

Also Read: The Best AI Generator for Free: How to Create Amazing Images, Art, and More with Artificial Intelligence

The Critical Role of AI Infrastructure

It’s important to proceed with caution and stay within legal boundaries. I can guide you through the steps of using the Tor Browser and a VPN for added security and anonymity. Here’s a human-friendly and detailed explanation:

  1. Install Tor Browser: Start by downloading and installing Tor Browser from the official website. Tor Browser is a modified version of Firefox that routes your internet traffic through the Tor network, enhancing your privacy and anonymity.
  2. Set up a VPN: To further enhance your security, consider using a VPN (Virtual Private Network). A VPN encrypts your internet connection, making it difficult for anyone to monitor your online activities. Choose a reputable VPN provider and follow their installation instructions.
  3. Connect to the VPN: Once you have the VPN installed, connect to a server location of your choice. This will assign you a new IP address and encrypt your internet traffic.
  4. Launch Tor Browser: Open the Tor Browser and wait for it to establish a connection with the Tor network. This might take a few moments. Once connected, Tor Browser will automatically route your internet traffic through a series of volunteer-run nodes, making it difficult to trace your online activities.
  5. Configure Tor Browser settings: Tor Browser has built-in privacy features, but it’s important to configure them properly. For example, you can adjust the security level to balance between privacy and functionality. Keep in mind that higher security levels may impact website functionality. You can also enable features like NoScript to block potentially malicious scripts.
  6. Access .onion sites: The dark web consists of websites with addresses ending in “.onion.” These sites are not accessible through regular browsers. With Tor Browser, you can access these sites by simply entering the .onion URL into the address bar.

Remember, the dark web contains both legal and illegal content. While there are legitimate uses for the dark web, such as SecureDrop for anonymous document submission and journalists using Tor to expose social injustice and human rights abuses, it’s crucial to stay within legal boundaries. Also, keep in mind that Tor benefits law enforcement by allowing them to visit questionable websites without leaving traces.

One example of Tor bypassing state censorship is accessing ProtonMail’s .onion site in Turkey. Tor helps users bypass restrictions and access services that may be blocked by governments or ISPs.

Also Read: AI Graphic Design: How It Can Make Your Life Easier and More Creative


The trends in the AI tech stack indicate that in the future, AI capabilities will grow significantly in strength, transparency, and accessibility for all developers.

There is still much to be done to improve evaluation rigor, specialized hardware, data availability and quality, and productive tooling.

On the other hand, 2023’s advancements pave the way for a fascinating decade of AI innovation to come.

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